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Hyperledger Sawtooth is a modular platform for building, deploying, and running distributed ledgers. Distributed ledgers provide a digital record (such as asset ownership) that is maintained without a central authority or implementation.

CHALLENGES WITH TRADITIONAL DIGITAL ASSETS
  • Fragmented ecosystem – digital asset issuers have custom processes for managing, distributing and tracking assets.
  • Lacking secondary market controls – it can be difficult to verify if assets are genuine or counterfeit
  • Inconsistent record keeping practices differ between sellers
  • Centralized/proprietary solutions can cause bias and conflicts of interest.
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN SOLUTION

ADVANTAGES OF BLOCKCHAIN TRANSACTION TRACKING
  • Consistent data recorded across different sellers.
  • Immutable transaction record enables security and trust between parties.
  • Smart contracts allow asset creators to set terms for how secondary transactions occur.

The Hyperledger Sawtooth platform enables users to design custom solutions for their digital assets. With Sawtooth, firms can customize transaction families for the unique characteristics of specific assets so that they can create asset identifiers, accept offers, and track ownership.

ASSET SETTLEMENT – Enabling secure and efficient bond settlement with Hyperledger Sawtooth blockchain technology.

CHALLENGES WITH TRADITIONAL BOND RECORD KEEPING
  • Record keeping practices differ between institutions, reconciling ledgers is often difficult, expensive and time-consuming.
  • Historical bond ownership data can be fractured and incomplete.
  • Centralized data management solutions have monopolized their offerings.
  • Data can be altered retroactively leading to financial fraud.
  • Centralized systems risk single failure points.
ADVANTAGES OF BLOCKCHAIN BOND OWNERSHIP
  • Creates data consistency across different institutions.
  • Ensures comprehensive, ordered accurate, immutable historical ownership data.
  • Secures sensitive information through unique hardware configuration.
  • Distributed records combat monopolies and yields transparency and trust.

The Hyperledger Sawtooth platform enables to design custom solutions for a variety of financial use cases. With Sawtooth, developers can customize transaction families for the unique characteristics of specific financial investments such as bonds or derivatives. Transaction family logic enables participants to add users and firms, issue assets and quotes, and trade and settle instruments on a shared ledger between financial services companies.

 

 

 

The article was originally published in db9systems' site

As more and more IoT devices are deployed in mission critical applications, securing IoT networks presents a number of unique challenges [1]. According to Eclipse IoT Working Group’s 2017 IoT developer survey [2], security is the top concern for IoT developers.

 

The IoT security challenges include:

  • Authorize and authenticate devices
  • Manage device updates
  • Secure communication
  • Ensure data privacy and integrity
  • Secure web, mobile, and cloud applications
  • Ensure high availability
  • Detect vulnerabilities and incidents
  • Predict and preempt security issues

 

DomaniSystems’ approach to IoT security relies on the use of a combination of Machine Learning, BlockChain Technology and Containerization.

 

The figure below illustrates how Internet of Things (IoT) nodes can be managed by a server or a set of servers. 

Figure 1. Example of an IoT Network

Referring to Figure above, part of the security management software resides in the Aggregator and another part resides in the Application Server(s), with both parts written in an executable programming language like C. The purpose of these software blocks in the aggregator and the server would be, for example, to ensure that the interaction between the aggregator and the server is secure and meets established performance requirements. The private network referred to in the Figure could be based on a number of technologies like Carrier Ethernet or a private Blockchain networks.

 

To develop and enable applications such as mission-critical and secure IoT networks, one needs a platform that can be used to develop the software residing in the network’s sensors, actuators, aggregators, and servers. Additionally, simulation capability is needed to ensure that a network consisting of a large number of aggregators and servers ultimately operates with the performance and security needed for its intended application.

DomaniSystems’ DCP platform’s design objective is to address these requirements.

 

For more details about DomaniSystems, visit our Website at https://www.domanisystems.com

We encourage open discussion on Smart Contracts, Blockchain, Security and IoT for mutual benefit and enhancement of knowledge and understanding. You can start your discussion or questions here. You can also contact us directly; all the information is on our Website.

                                                                
References:

[1] https://developer.ibm.com/dwblog/2017/iot-security-challenges/

[2] https://ianskerrett.wordpress.com/2017/04/19/iot-developer-trends-2017-edition/



 

Maintaining secure access to sensitive information is a challenge that keeps more than a few members of the medical information technology industry up at night.

The data kept, if breached, has the potential to destroy patients’ lives while ruining the reputation of the breached company.

The problem is finding and implementing a security system that enables doctors, patients, and properly authorized third-party organisations like insurance companies access to the data without creating openings for potential security risks.

Why are Passwords Not Enough?

Passwords are simple combinations of letters, symbols, and numbers that can be cracked by modern computers in relatively short time spans. Thanks to botnets, it is even possible to leverage millions of computers in an effort to find one password that will enable data thieves to access to materials that, by both law and ethics, should never see the light of day.

Leverage Blockchain To Secure Data.

The Blockchain technology is the form of open cryptography that leverages public and private keys to secure information alongside a publicly available registry that is managed in an automated and decentralized manner. Once encrypted, you need both the passcode and the private key to unlock the information making it possible for all the encrypted data to be taken and still be utterly useless to the thief.

There have been many practical applications of this technology of the last ten years, from digital currency to smart contract management. For the medical industry, it is best considered a form of security decentralized data storage that gives both medical institutions and patients the ability to access their records anywhere in a secure and equitable manner.

We can overcome password limitation by leveraging a combination of specialized SSL/TLS certificates and blockchain public keys to authenticate the user before any information is transmitted. Thus, if the hacker isn’t using the right files on the right computer, it is impossible for him to get to the point where it is even possible to crack the password.

Easily Grant and Revoke Access

A challenge with securing data in traditional settings is the fact that once it is copied onto a third-party medium it is beyond the reach of any IT department. Even if the file has password protection enabled, all it takes is a cracker to break it. By making access conditional to authentication from an updated blockchain, it is possible to remotely grant and remove access to all files in a way that guarantees information security.

Blockchain Solutions makes it possible to enable and remove access to specific token-backed files, in addition to changing ownership of those files on the fly. For employers, this means it is possible to guarantee that a former staff member loses access to all data upon termination of employment without having to violate his or her privacy during the corporate separation process. All it takes is one command and all relevant material can be transferred to someone else.

Securing Personal Data 

A combination of biometric security on your device and the blockchain principles of private keys controlled solely by the user opens up the opportunity to ditch usernames and passwords forever. And with the most popular password still being 123456, that’s got to be a good thing.

As well as that, add the potential to store identity information on the blockchain where only the user owns and controls it. Blockchain has always been recognized as a great asset storage system, thanks to its zero knowledge storage, encryption, privacy, security and trust, all combined with the immutable ledger that’s decentralized.

Many companies have already enabled identity on the blockchain. However, identity alone, unconnected to the everyday services we all use, is limited.

Things get really interesting when you link identity on the blockchain with existing payment methods and services.

Privacy

Right now, we all hand over control of our personal information so promiscuously, the only real surprise is that the associated privacy problems aren’t even bigger than they are.

Blockchain offers the enticing vision of a world where you can transact without having to hand over every part of your transaction details or remember the name of your mother’s favourite childhood pet. The blockchain’s potential for zero-knowledge proofs also offers a cryptographic way to do things like prove your age without showing your age, or demonstrate your status as a good actor with a record of successful transactions — without revealing the content of those transactions.

Technology like this could well be used to acquire loans, make high-value payments — and maybe remove the need for a risk assessment on every single transaction. It could even spell the end of credit monitoring as we know it — good news, given that recent events have shown how wary we should be about security at some of those companies.

Lastly, once each of us has our information securely stored on a blockchain, we have the opportunity to choose if and when we share it — in return for actual value. This could be the beginning of a true “internet of value.”

 

For more articles like this

Patient satisfaction is not a clearly defined concept, although it is identified as an important quality outcome indicator to measure success of the services delivery system

 

There is no clear consensus between the literatures on how to define the concept of patient satisfaction in healthcare.

 

In Donabedian's quality measurement model

 

A patient satisfaction is defined as patient-reported outcome measure while the structures and processes of care can be measured by patient-reported experiences

 

For everything in life we need some kind of metrics, some tools to measure the clinical outcome and the patient satisfaction. So to make up for it may I suggest we incorporate Tech enabled, Blockchain optimized patient feedback mechanism.

 

So what is the solution, how do we propose to go about it, well unlike Press Ganey & HCAHPS (the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems), Press Ganey has stated that a minimum of 30 survey responses is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions from the data it receives and that it will not stand behind statistical analysis when less than 30 responses are received. 

 

If we all incorporate a blockchain Ecosystem & go truly real time in the patient feedback mechanism it would greatly enhance the whole patient experience and maybe help to manage solve some of the issues in real time. Wouldn’t it be just great if we incorporate Blockchain in the patient feedback loop, we wouldn’t have to wait for 30 odd surveys to be analyzed we could just go ahead and fix the situation right away if it warrants an action.

 

Another major issue is NO show and Missed Appointments

 

One study estimates, in US alone missed appointments cost US healthcare providers up to $150 billion a year.There have been instances that a Clinic loses money because of No Showand missed appointments.Patients not showing up can be costly to the health-care system. Offices lose out on revenue, and delaying care can lead to more expensive treatments later on.

"We very much believe it's going to take a collaborative effort, and we think that this kind of technology integration is going to be a critical path for being successful in terms of breaking down those barriers for access to transportation for the patient community."  David Baga, CBO, Lyft

Allscripts, Lyft and few other companies have joined hands to address this problem. The companies said they hope working together will reduce the number of people who miss medical appointments because of transportation issues.

But interesting it was found in another study giving poor people free use of ridesharing services like Uber and Lyft for doctor appointments doesn’t make them any less likely to become no-shows than patients who have to find their own way there, a U.S. study suggests.

 

So what are we missing here, I believe incentivising ( tokens ) is the key and Blockchain could play a major role. Blockchain in itself is not a panacea for all things healthcare but it certainly holds the key to transform the current healthcare service delivery mechanism and make it more transparent and efficient.

A lot of small or large businesses have realized that the Blockchain is the technology of next age. In next decades, the Blockchain Application Development is going to emerge as a revolutionary technological advancement. As a result, you can easily observe that the opportunists are looking for various Bitcoin application solutions and applications. Not only the private companies but government bodies are also looking for potential benefits of the Blockchain technology. Moreover, experts are engaged in finding new ways to utilize Blockchain in different industry verticals. Briefly,  Infograins conclude that the Blockchain technology is going to widen its scope steadily. However, there are some questions that can be raised but experts say that all the questions will have their answers soon.

 

We cannot predict the future but due to existing conditions, we can hope for some Blockchain Technology trends in the next years. Let us look at five trends that are expected to lead a number of industry sectors in the next years.

 

1. Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial Intelligence is the modern concept in which the machines are designed to think just like humans and the results are quite interesting. The concept of thinking machines is based on an algorithm to perform the activities like humans and even they want machines may develop their intelligence without any further development.


As it is obvious, if they want to make the thinking machines, the machines need the access to big data and the involvement of Blockchain has made the exchange of big data quite economical.

 

2. Smart Contracts:
A smart contract is a coded program that is stored and runs on a Blockchain. Smart contracts are just like normal contracts that are executed without the need of any third party. According to the Smart contract developers, they provide unmatched security to all of the parties that belong to the Blockchain network. Nowadays, smart contracts are used to perform a number of functions that are based on the fulfillment of some pre-defined conditions to have full control on the digital assets. There are some risk factors in the field but The Blockchain and Smart Contract developers are needed in every sector and it shows that the scope of Smart Contracts is increasing quickly.

 

3. Cybersecurity:
At present, Cyber attacks are usual and there is a huge need of a secure system to minimize the cases of cybercrime. Therefore, Cryptocurrencies along with the Blockchain technology is going to replace all the traditional ways of cybersecurity. Blockchain technology is considered as an epitome of security and going to be an integral part of cybersecurity systems in future.

 

4. Etherium:
Etherium is quite similar to the Bitcoin and it seems like a smart contract platform while it is used as a robust blockchain platform. It was introduced with the Smart contract in mind and was designed with a powerful programming language called solidity. The Smart contract developers are looking for more opportunities by writing powerful Solidity code for building error-free Smart contracts.

 

5. Private Blockchain Networks:
Not only public network but private networks also need the same level security with the help of Blockchain Technology. Therefore, the developer should consider the private institutions as well while they think of utilizing the public blockchain market.


The Blockchain technology is making its way towards being a most sought after advancement and as a leading Blockchain Development Company, Infograins is looking for more opportunities in different sectors where the technology can change the traditional ways of transactions of digital assets.

A group of major automakers from around the world, including General Motors, BMWFordBosch, ZF, and Groupe Renault has teamed up with leading blockchain experts to form a major initiative, designed to provide businesses and consumers with more control and security for data relating to automobile use.

The new alliance, with partners including Accenture, IBM and Context Labs, was announced. Named MOBI (Mobility Open Blockchain Initiative), it will seek to provide users with control over driving data, ride-sharing transactions, stored vehicle identity, and other usage information.

“Blockchain and related trust enhancing technologies are poised to redefine the automotive industry and how consumers purchase, insure and use vehicles,” stated former Chief Financial Officer and Director of Mobility Services at Toyota Research Institute, Chris Ballinger. “By bringing together automakers, suppliers, startups, and government agencies, we can accelerate adoption for the benefit of businesses, consumers and communities.”

MOBI is currently working with over 70 percent of global vehicle producing companies by market share, according to the announcement. The alliance is developing an open source ecosystem designed to accommodate automakers, public transit authorities, commuters, and transportation firms, along with blockchain and startup companies that want to contribute to making transportation safer, more transparent, and more efficient through technology. Initial goals for the project will be related to autonomous machine and vehicle payment, car sharing and ride-hailing, supply chain tracking and efficiency, vehicle identity history and tracking, and usage-based pricing and payments for vehicles, insurance, congestion, and infrastructure.

Initial goals for the project will be related to autonomous machine and vehicle payment, car sharing and ride-hailing, supply chain tracking and efficiency, vehicle identity history and tracking, as well as usage-based pricing and payments for vehicles, insurance, congestion and infrastructure.

 

Vice President & Partner, IBM Automotive Industry Leader Sachin Lulla stated, “A set of blockchain standards for the mobility industry will allow auto, infrastructure and service providers to efficiently communicate and transact with each other. Bringing the industry together and building interoperable blockchain networks is key to helping the automotive industry unleash the potential of blockchain. IBM is contributing our expertise in building blockchain consortia to the group to help accelerate development and ultimately benefit consumers.”

Blockchain News

This is the second in a Blog series titled:  Blockchain Powered Smart Grid Evolution. In our previous blog we discussed electrical power distribution in economic terms and that both power and energy is a commodity to be bought, sold, and traded. [1]

 

While the present trading scheme is reliable, we pointed out that it has two serious weaknesses:  a) long settlement times that can take 7-10 days to finalize the payment related to the transaction between partners and b) bank fees associated with settlement can be quite high.

 

We explored a future looking system in the previous blog for energy trading that will be powered by Smart Contracts over the Blockchain as shown in Figure 1 above.   We looked at reducing the settlement time and trading fees through Smart Contracts over a private Blockchain network, owned and operated by the ISO, to interconnect the ISO server node with the partner nodes.   In addition, we explored the possibility of an ISO creating its own cryptocurrency for settlement of the trading, thus reducing the settlement fee and removing large centralized banking institutions as intermediaries.

 

Energy Smart Meters, Switches and Microgrids

 

In this blog, we go beyond energy trading and expand into ideas for smart meters, smart switches and Smart Microgrids powered over the Blockchain for the distribution of energy.  In today’s power grids the energy is distributed through a complex transmission system consisting of a large number of switches and meters some of which have to be manually operated when energy is shared between two utilities.   Once the Trading Agreement is completed, there is a long planning process needed to determine the exact timing of switches being manually turned on and off.  This process is complex and error prone and thus could lead to devasting consequences in the power grid if not performed according to the detailed plan of execution.

 

Now consider a next generation method of controlling the distribution of energy using Blockchain and Smart meters/switches as shown in Figure 2 below.   

 

 

The ISO Server Node and Partner Nodes are all connected to the ISO Private Blockchain Network as was described previously.   All the data exchange for energy trading proceeds through this Blockchain Network and all Trading Settlement Information is Inserted by the ISO Node on the Blockchain.  Thus, the trading is decentralized and is done through the Smart Contract deployed on the Blockchain.  As the trading is completed, the Smart Contract will also contain all the detailed information to determine how energy is shared between the Partners and the precise timing.  Energy Sharing is then controlled through Smart Meters and Smart Switches triggered by the Smart Contract.  The ISO Node is the Super-Node of the private blockchain and it consists of a high-availability cluster of nodes.

 

The architecture shown in Figure 2 can further be extended to Microgrids. A microgrid is a localized group of electricity sources and sinks (loads) that typically operates connected to and synchronous with the traditional centralized grid (Main Grid), but can disconnect and maintain operation autonomously as physical and/or economic conditions dictate.[2]   The Microgrid is a novel distribution network architecture within the Smartgrids concept, capable of exploiting the full benefits from the integration of large numbers of small scale distributed energy resources.

 

A future looking Blockchain Powered Smart Microgrid, as shown in Figure 3, can be managed and controlled by a Smart Contract.   Storage devices and Transient Stability Control devices are all operated through the Smart Contracts.  In addition to the control of storage and stability devices, the Microgrid is generally connected to the Main Grid via Smart “Point of Common Coupling” devices. 

 

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning based control algorithms in concert with the Smart Contract over Blockchain ensure overall power system stability and reliability.  These control algorithms are integrated within the Smart Contract.

 

 

In summary, Blockchain use cases are proliferating in the energy domain.  The evolution will be gradual, but the organizations need to get started immediately.  The trend is towards decentralized control of Energy Trading and Grid Operation.  Eventually the Microgrid Architecture discussed in this blog can be extended to the Main Grid. Of course there are many regulatory issues that might have to be resolved depending on the regulatory climate in a country. 

 

Ultimately, Smart Contracts running on a Private Blockchain Network will control overall operation of the smart grid as well as the main grids and private cryptocurrencies will be the mechanism for energy trading and settlement.

 

For more details about DomaniSystems, visit our Website at https://www.domanisystems.com

 

We encourage open discussion on Smart Contracts, Blockchain, Security and IoT for mutual benefit and enhancement of knowledge and understanding.  You can start your discussion or questions here.  You can also contact us directly; all the information is on our Website.

 

References:

[1]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_market

[2]  https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/about-microgridshttps://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/about-microgrids

 

blockchain blockchain sig energy energy management smart metering smart contracts

It seemed there are quite a few players who are getting into the business of Healthcare Information Exchange ( HIE ), prima facie it looks great but what is worrying is are we going the way what happened in USA couple of years back.  What HIE does is that it better enables physicians to track and manage patient health records while reducing medical errors and increasing patient safety. Providers have also found that HIE eliminates a lot of the documentation and data entry that was once a part of the office workflow, enhancing health care efficiency.

 

AllScripts and GE had to undo/redo things to sustain themselves. We should also remember that the India’s healthcare IT is still stuck in medieval age, 80% of the healthcare data is stored and retrieved manually. We don’t have a proper healthcare regulatory framework in India, NeHA( National E health Authority, India) is not set up yet. It is still in the stage of being formulated.  India has recently become IHTSDO member but the providers are not equipped to integrate it into their systems. So the issue is what comes first the bullock or the cart. First we need to Implement EHR otherwise we risk so many providers falling off the radar. The amount of data being generated at all the tier 2/tier 3 cities that are being hoarded without being shared with a central repository is something we need to look at and we need to bring them on board.

 

There are so many healthcare entities who are working in silos, there is hardly any exchange of information between them and any central repository. The central framework needs to be first implemented so that the players don’t end up re doing lot of work.

 

There’s a World market today pushing towards integration. Sharing data is going to be key. That’s one of the big challenges they face. But to integrate we need to have healthcare data that is standardized, to be shared and stored with a central repository.

 

The worry is if we have too many players getting into the space of HIE we also need some mechanism in place, some proper checks and balances, above all we need stronger healthcare data privacy laws like HIPAA, this also begets a million dollar question who is the custodian of the patient data.  It is the patient or the provider or the Government, these are some of the pertinent questions that needs to be answered. There are few who are not comfortable with the storage of healthcare data with the private players. I believe Government should be the ultimate custodian of the healthcare data.

 

concluding part follows :-

In a digital age where cars drive themselves and CEOs  hold meetings across continents in virtual reality conference rooms, engagement of the disenfranchised is a less attractive endeavor than the sleek apps, making it an outlier in the realm of tech solutions. 

In our endeavour to promote digital india it should be our collective effort to bring healthcare to the disenfranchised and to the people who slip out of the cracks.

Most of us just don't bother to take care of the elephant in the room, its time all the stakeholders joined hands and come up with a solution. For me personally Equity is of paramount importance in healthcare.The lack of focus on vulnerable populations in patient safety discounts the significance of the many lives lost, all precious to those who love them. we have yet to place strategic emphasis on the need to protect all. A man’s life lost to medical error then disguised as a heart attack, either intentionally or because of unconscious prejudice about the depth of his pocket, is more than a patient safety event. For the millions of people who have been exposed to discrimination based on their spending capacity and limited access to resources and denial of equality in humanity, such an event adds insult to tragic injury.We must connect in ridding our health system of all forms of inequality and ensuring that all people are protected from harm equally.

As hospitals and care systems work to improve quality of care and prepare for coming changes in the health care field, the ability to fully understand their patient populations and communities is critical. Collecting and using ethnicity, language, spending capacity data will help hospitals and care systems understand their patient populations and address health care disparities. While many hospitals are successfully collecting REAL data, fewer are effectively stratifying the data to shed light on health care disparities,

We need to  systematically collect race, ethnicity and language REAL preference data on all patients. We need to use REAL data to look for variations in clinical outcomes, resource utilization, length of stay and frequency of readmissions within our hospital. We need to compare patient satisfaction ratings among diverse groups and act on the information. Above all we need to actively use REAL data for strategic and outreach planning for the underprivileged.


Ehealth or no ehealth, if its not able to solve the issues of equity & empathy than its no value prop only noise, maybe it would help become a excellent facilitator in healthcare delivery but it sadly would not be able to solve the core issue of equity and empathy.

The concluding part follows:

How Blockchain could solve the problem of Universal healthcare.

BASIC DETAILS

 

Product Name: M1xchange 

Name of Organization:  Mynd Solutions Pvt Ltd 

At the helm: Sundeep Mohindru 

Year of Incorporation (for startups): 2002 

Website:  www.m1xchange.com

 

PROJECT DETAILS

 

 1. Tell us how blockchain is implemented in your product/solution

TReDS is a concept from RBI, under which Bill Discounting Exchanges have been setup by three entities namely Mynd Solutions Pvt Ltd, Axis Bank Ltd and NSE-SIDBI JV. Under this programme, large corporates and their suppliers upload their invoices on the platform, which the counterparty verifies or accepts. Post that, the financiers place their bids for financing the respective invoice for the credit period. The interest bearer party accepts the most suitable bid.

 

With three exchanges operating in India and many banks financing through these exchanges and outside the exchanges, there is always a chance that an invoice gets uploaded on more than one exchange, which is not a problem. However, it had to be ensured that duplicate financing does not happen on the same invoice.

 

To solve this issue, the three exchanges came together and have setup a permissioned ledger, using Monetago’s blockchain solution. Every exchange has its own node on the blockchain network. Any invoice that is being uploaded on the platform gets registered on the respective node. If an exchange tries to register an invoice, which is already registered on any of the other nodes, the platform through the agreed protocol informs about the duplicity and the status of financing on the platform.

 

If the invoice is financed on another platform, the registration of the invoice by the next exchange is stopped right there. However, if the invoice is only registered and not yet financed, the exchange can take a decision, whether or not they want to register that invoice.

 

At the time of bid acceptance by the interest bearer, the exchange again validates from the blockchain node, if the invoice is already factored in any other exchange. If it is, then the bid acceptance is stopped and the invoice gets discarded from the platform.

 

Many banks will also join this common utility of blockchain to check the duplicity and discussions are on for onboarding banks also on this network.

 

2. How did application of blockchain improve the above product/solution? Please outline the benefits with a comparison of the way it was done before blockchain.

 

The possibility of having duplicate invoices is greatly reduced with this. With the implementation of this solution on the exchange, the financiers can bid more confidently on the platform, without the fear of invoice getting double financed by another financier.

 

3. What sort of challenges in implementation/adoption are you expecting?

The solution has undergone testing for a long period between participants and has now been implemented. We do not foresee any major issues.

 

4. Give details of the cost of your solution and scope of scalability

The platform is a permissioned ledger and is right now for use between the 3 exchanges. Going forward, this will be extended  to banks and other NBFC factors, who are involved in Factoring/Bill Discounting.

 

To read other use cases, follow blockchain solution spotlight

BASIC DETAILS

 

Product Name: ASTU – Automatic Scheme Track Unifier

Name of Organization: ChainFrame  

At the helm: Nitin Shukla 

Year of Incorporation (for startups): 2016

Website: chainframe.com

 

 PROJECT DETAILS

  

  • Tell us how blockchain is implemented in your product/solution :
    ASTU is a public fund management platform powered by blockchain and smart contract layers that back a simple and easy to user multilingual workflow for administrators, agencies, citizens and service providers. Astu provides powerful information collection and fund movement processes to ensure that you have end to end visibility into the planning, roll out, and performance of programs. The blockchain is implemented as the primary data structure to ratify transactions. The smart contracts are used to create a robust permissioning system, an effective and automatic asset control mechanism. Using a set of such contracts that live on the blockchain, we have a secure management protocol for identity, assets and contextual data generated by users at all levels, held in distributed immutable blockchains making sure that everything done, can be managed and collected in one source of truth. 

 

  • How did application of blockchain improve the above product/solution? Please outline the benefits with a comparison of the way it was done before blockchain.
    Many of blockchain's current use cases could be just as effective with traditional ERP systems. However, public governance is one case where using the blockchain is clearly superior to conventional systems. It provides immutable data, end-to-end visibility of fund flows or permission granted at each node/department. It precludes the possibility of tampering or destroying data at all levels. Further, its transaction and activity history generates new and interesting data about process efficiency within government departments. 

 

  • What sort of challenges in implementation/adoption are you expecting?
    In implementation, each use case requires a slightly different architecture. Developing the heuristics to balance between user-controlled customisability and the appropriate feature-set is one of our biggest challenges in implementation. Adoption is a challenge to be solved by good design. Our users include everyone from central ministries to regular citizens who may or may not be first time users of any kind of personal computation technology. Designing the platform to cover the spectrum of highly sophisticated, to first time users of the internet, is a difficult but highly enriching challenge.

 

  • Give details of the cost of your solution and scope of scalability:
    Our costs are specific to the client and use cases we work with but very affordable (and cost saving) for even governments and nonprofits. Our pricing model includes a licensing fee for deploying the platform and then a pay-for-success plan per beneficiary. Our systems are built with highly scalable technical architectures that leverages the latest state of blockchain technology and can accommodate as many users as needed. In terms of the applicability of our product itself, the scope is immense and Astu is relevant to governments but also to enterprises. It has several data modules that can provide the insight to improve governance and administration in public and private systems. With Astu, we provide a unique way of managing all types of organizations and fund flows to foster trust and exponential efficiency.

 

We have the CEO of Chainframe with us. To talk to Nitin Shukla, use the comment section below. To read other use cases, follow blockchain solution spotlight

AgroBlock !!! a combination of Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, and Blockchain components to enable circular economy in agriculture.

 

The overarching vision of agroblock is to play a role in enabling a stronger economic cooperation between the various players in the Agri sector by helping agro-businesses to leverage the emerging technologies around Blockchain, AI and IoT.

Through a set of plug-n-play technology components, Agroblock wants to bridge the gap of reliability, knowledge, and trust among the various entities involved in the agricultural supply chain. These are the three cornerstones of this solution and the aim is to build a circular economy which can mutually benefit the growers and consumers, as well as the intermediaries involved in the system.  

As agriculture constitutes 52% of the worlds' economy, we believe that by streamlining the processes through this circular economy, we will be able to create a better, transparent and a more sustainable world for our future generations.

Key Features of Agroblock

Reliability: Agroblock's hardware component enables data logging and testing of soil samples to help growers with soil quality assessment. For consumers, it offers a ready to deploy IoT solution to track the storage and handling conditions of the agricultural produce along the various transit points in the supply chain.

Knowledge: At the heart of Agroblock is an MIS which maintains a database of the most important and dynamically changing parameters impacting the agricultural supply chain. This includes, but is not limited to, soil health & quality metrics (at micronutrient level), crop yield & market pricing info. Agroblock's AI engine can combine this data with macro-level parameters from environmental and geological data to provide knowledge services such as automated soil healthcare, crop advisory & price predictions.    

Trust: Trust encompasses every business transaction and Agroblock has it embedded at the core of its offering. Thanks to the advancement in Blockchain, smart contract, and distributed ledger system, Agroblock builds upon these emerging technologies to establish a trustworthy system. Agroblock enables a complete decentralized and transparent system for the agro supply chain based on four pillars of an efficient supply chain process.

 - Secured Transaction

 - Instant Reconciliation

 - Quick Dispute Resolution

 - Audit Trail

We now need your support to further strengthen our product line around the three components and productize the solution.

In economic terms, electricity (both power and energy) is a commodity capable of being bought, sold, and traded. [1] An electricity market is a system enabling purchases and short-term trades, generally in the form of financial or obligation swaps. Bids and offers use supply and demand principles to set the price.  Transactions (bids and offers) in electricity are typically cleared and settled by the “market operator” or a special-purpose independent entity charged exclusively with that function such as an Independent System Operator (ISO).

 

Let us illustrate the function of a typical ISO like the one in the State of New York in the USA. [2]  It’s mission is to reliably manage New York’s power grid and energy markets consisting of 11,000 circuit miles of transmission lines.  Their membership includes organizations which own 760 power generation units generating over 1,400MW of power.  Its mission also is to “coordinate and direct the flow of electricity every minute of every day over the NY state’s high-voltage transmission system. “

 

How is energy trading managed by a typical ISO like the one in NY State?  Today, energy trading is done using a scheme as in Figure 1.  Each ISO partner has the capability to access ISO’s server through secure links as shown in Figure 1.   Through this scheme, each ISO partner can buy or sell energy as is required.  This is a reliable scheme, but it has two serious weaknesses.  The first weakness is the settlement time as it can take 7-10 days to finalize the payment related to the transaction between partners.  The second weakness stems from the fact that the bank fees associated with settlement can be quite high.

 

A future looking system for energy trading will be powered by Smart Contracts over the Blockchain as shown in Figure 2.   The ISO Server inserts energy trading settlement information on Blockchain and all the partners can now access the information in a secure way. 

 

The next step in evolution in energy trading would use a private Blockchain network, owned and operated by the ISO, to interconnect the ISO server node with the partner nodes.  This is shown in Figure 3.  All data exchange for energy trading is done through the blockchain network.  All trading settlement information is inserted by the ISO node on the Blockchain.  In addition, the ISO will create its own cryptocurrency for settlement of the trading, thus reducing the settlement time and removing large centralized banking institutions as middle men.

 

Blockchain use cases are proliferating in the energy domain.  The evolution will be gradual, but the Utilities have already started the research and development in this area.  What we have illustrated in Figure 2 and 3 are just the beginning. 

 

We believe the possible application of Smart Contracts in the energy domain are limitless.

 

Private Blockchain networks will be the mechanism for energy trading and ISO specific crypto currencies will be used extensively for the settlement of trading contracts.  This future is here and now.

 

In future blogs, we will discuss additional energy use cases for Smart Contracts over Blockchain in the energy domain.

 

For more details about DomaniSystems, visit our Website at

https://www.domanisystems.com

 

We encourage open discussion on Smart Contracts, Blockchain, Security and IoT for mutual benefit and enhancement of knowledge and understanding.  You can start your discussion or questions here.  You can also contact us directly; all the information is on our Website.

 

References:

[1]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_market

[2]  https://home.nyiso.com/

Sakshi Goyal

Blockchain

Posted by Sakshi Goyal Apr 3, 2018

In simple words, data are contained inside blocks as well as an arbitrary integer that is necessary for producing the proof-of-work. In bitcoin blockchain, the block contains a header and relevant transaction data. A merkle tree of transactions is created and the hash of the root is included in the header. A merkle tree is a full binary tree of a hash values. At the bottom level of the tree, each transaction has a node containing its hash value. After that, the tree is constructed in a way such that the parent node has a value of the hash of the data contained in its children concatenating together.

The blockchain is designed in a way such that the average time for a block to be generated remains fairly constant. In the bitcoin blockchain, the average time for a block to generate is 10 minutes. Other blockchains may have a different time, e.g. 30 seconds, 5 minutes, etc.

If you want to know more about Blockchain and Bitcoin Technology please gothrough below Link:-

Blockchain is far more widely useful than for just cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin.  Blockchains create immutable, persistent, and searchable records of events, transactions, contracts, and official documents.

 

If we think beyond the realm of humans interacting with each other and look forward to the new world of autonomous systems interacting with each other, blockchain technology gives us a simple, cost-effective, and permanent record of decisions made and communicated on our behalf. [1]

 

An example of a IoT network is exemplified by the figure above, which illustrates how Internet of Things nodes can be managed by a server or a set of servers. This diagram explains the possible topology of an IoT network. [2]

 

Referring to the figure, part of the management software resides in the Aggregator and another part resides in the Application Server(s), with both parts written in an executable programming language like C.  The purpose of these software blocks in the aggregator and the server would be, for example, to ensure that the interaction between the aggregator and the server is secure and meets established performance requirements. The private network referred to in the figure could be based on several technologies like Private Enterprise Networks based on Carrier Ethernet, Virtual Private Network (VPN) or a private Blockchain network. [2]

 

Depending on the through-put requirements needed, the private network could be a combination of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) and a Blockchain network where the data from/to the sensors to/from the server travel through the VPN but the management information which needs to be very secure is passed from the server to the aggregators or vice-versa using the Blockchain network.

 

Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) allow machines to reason and learn in ways once associated only with humans.  Combine ML/AI with IoT, and you have something vastly more interesting than either one by itself - the ability to recognize meaningful patterns buried in mountains of data, and do so in fractions of a second, in ways that would be exceptionally more difficult for most humans.  Better yet, the algorithms get smarter over time. [1]

 

To develop and enable applications such as mission-critical and secure IoT networks, one needs a platform that can be used to develop the software residing in the network’s sensors, actuators, aggregators, and servers.  Additionally, simulation capability is needed to ensure that a network consisting of a large number of aggregators and servers ultimately operates with the performance and security needed for its intended application. [2]

 

DomaniSystems’ Decentralized Collaboration and Integration Platform’s (DCP) design objective is to address these requirements. [2]

 

 

 

For more details about DomaniTokens, visit our Website at https://www.domanisystems.com.

 

We encourage open discussion on Smart Contracts, Blockchain, Security and IoT for mutual benefit and enhancement of knowledge and understanding.  You can start your discussion or questions here.  You can also contact us directly; all the information is on our Website.

 

References:

[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/oracle/2018/01/10/iot-ai-and-blockchain-time-to-reimagine-the-art-of-the-possible/#306602ed3107

[2] https://www.domanisystems.com/downloads and refer to the DomaniSystems Whitepaper Download.